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Author's Corner

Writing, publishing and sharing resources for Fred Hutch authors.


Author Support

Contact Allysha Eyler, MLIS
Scholarly Communications Librarian
Arnold Library - Weintraub Building, B1-010

Writing Resources

Citation Management Software

Refer to the following guide for more information on how to manage citations with programs like Zotero, Mendeley, and EndNote:

Permanent Identification for Your Work

Arnold Library can help you understand the different identification numbers that may be related to your books, articles and other scholarly works!

  • Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
  • International Standard Book Number (ISBN)
  • International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)
Tip: Need a DOI or ISBN assigned? Contact the Scholarly Communications Librarian at the Arnold Library.

English Usage

Dictionaries, Encyclopedias & More

General Purpose


Style Guides

Federal Funding Acknowledgment

Is your work supported by NIH funds? Learn more about how to properly cite and acknowledge your funding as specified by NIH by visiting the NIH Grants & Funding site.

Publishing Resources: Things to Consider

Author Rights

When choosing where to publish, review the author agreement or license forms, and consider the following:

  • Who retains article copyright?
  • What reuse rights are retained?
  • Can you republish the full-text or portions of your article?
  • Can you include the material as part of course materials?
  • What are your deposit rights?
  • Is the publisher NIH compliant?
  • Do they submit to PubMed Central?
  • Do they allow the author to submit to PubMed Central?
  • Can you post your article to an author website or institutional repository?
  • Are there any restrictions (article version, release embargo) to be met?
Tip: Download and follow the instructions to complete the Amendment to Publication Agreement to negotiate deposit rights.

Publishing Model

One of the increasingly prominent considerations is the question of publishing model. Learn more about the differences between open access and traditional publishing models:

Open Access

Under an OA publishing model, journal revenue results from author fees paid when submitting a manuscript. Readers are not charged any access fees, and often times are allowed more lenient resuse rights.


Traditional, or subscription-based publishing operates in an opposite manner to OA. Under the traditional model, revenue is generated through purchased subscriptions. The barrier to access lies on the side of the reader.

Journal Metrics & Ranking

Use journal evaluation services, like JCR, SCImago and SNIP to evaluate an individual journal's performance and impact or to review an entire sub-discipline's journals as a group.

Journal Indexing

Use Ulrichsweb to find out more about the journal, including where the publication is indexed.

  • Perform a title search to find the journal
  • Click on the journal title to get more information
  • Click on the Online Availability or Other Availability sections for information about where the journal is indexed and/or available online.

Publisher Resources

Preparing your paper for publication? Several publishers have put together author resources covering the entire publication process from writing, submission, and navigating the peer-review process.

Sources of Open Access Journals & Articles

NIH Public Access Compliance

What is the NIH Public Access Policy?

The NIH Public Access policy ensures that the public has access to the published results of NIH-funded research. It requires scientists to submit final peer-reviewed journal manuscripts that arise from NIH funds to the digital archive PubMed Central immediately upon acceptance for publication. The help advance science and improve human health, the Policy requires that these papers are accessible to the public on PubMed Central no later than 12 months after publication.

To learn more about the Policy, visit the NIH Public Access Homepage for further information such as policy details, training materials, FAQs and more.

Step One: Determine Applicability

Tip: Unsure about how to get your paper submitted to PubMed Central? Contact the Scholarly Communications Librarian at the Arnold Library and we can help you determine your next steps.

Does the NIH Public Access Policy apply to your paper?

  • Is your paper peer-reviewed;
  • And, was accepted for publication April 7, 2008 or later;
  • And, arises from and NIH funding active in Fiscal Year 2008 or beyond?

If so - the answer is yes, the NIH Policy applies to you.

Step Two: Address Copyright

Ensure your publishing agreement allows the paper to be posted to PubMed Central in accordance with the NIH Public Access Policy.

Publisher policies are constantly being updated. The Scholarly Communications Librarian at Arnold Library can help review your publications to determine your PMC deposit rights. We'll investigate the publisher's policies and help you determine the next steps to complying with the Policy. Additionally, we've drafted an Amendment to Publication Agreement with Fred Hutch's General Counsel to ensure your rights are being met. Refer to the following guide for more information and to request scholarly services:

Step Three: Submit Paper

PubMed Central submissions occur in one of four ways, all of which should occur at the acceptance of the paper as dictated by the NIH Public Access Policy:

Method A

Journal deposits final published articles in PubMed Central without author involvement. These journals have an agreement with NIH to make these submissions. To see the full list of participating journals, see the Method A Journal list.

Method B

Author asks publisher to deposit specific final published article in PubMed Central (PMC). The publishers have an arrangement with NIH to deposit individual final published articles in PMC on a case-by-case basis. These journals do not automatically deposit every NIH-funded paper in PMC. Rather, the author can choose to arrange with the journal for the deposit of a specific article; this usually involves choosing the journal's fee-based open access option for publishing that article. To see the list of participating publishers, see the Method B Publisher list.

Method C

Author deposits final peer-reviewed manuscript in PMC via the NIH Manuscript Submission System (NIHMS). Arnold Library is ready to help with this. Provided your copyright allows it, we can submit your accepted, author manuscript to PubMed Central to be made publicly available within 12 months following publication. To submit a manuscript for PMC deposit, visit our webform.

Method D

Author completes submission of final peer-reviewed manuscript deposited by publisher in the NIHMS. These publishers have volunteered to deposit a final peer-reviewed manuscript to NIHMS when they determine that it falls under the NIH Public Access Policy. NIH has no formal relationship with these publishers. Authors and awardees are responsible for ensuring that the manuscript is deposited into NIHMS upon acceptance for publication, in accordance with the NIH Public Access Policy. NIH has compiled a Method D Publisher list but please note, it is still advisable to confirm individual journal policies as there are exceptions within publishing companies.

Please note: Papers submitted under Methods C & D do require additional author follow-up before a PMCID can be assigned.

Immediately upon submission, the approving (or corresponding author) will receive a notice from NIHMS asking them to complete the initial PDF approval. Once this is done, the paper will enter a submission review stage followed by the generation of the web version of the manuscript. At the completion of this stage, the author will receive a an additional request asking that they complete the final web review of their PMC-ready manuscript.

Only after this is done can a PMCID be assigned.

Step Four: Include PMCID in Citations

Include the PMCID at the end of the full citation in your application or report.

  • For papers that have been published for more than 3 months, include the PMCID at the end of the full journal citation for the paper in NIH applications, proposals and reports.  A PMCID is the only way to demonstrate compliance once a paper is 3 months past official publication.
    • An example of a properly cited PMCID:
      • Sala-Torra O, Gundacker HM, Stirewalt DL, Ladne PA, Pogosova-Agadjanyan EL, Slovak ML, Willman CL, Heimfeld S, Boldt DH, Radich JP. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression and outcome in adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Blood. 2007 April 1; 109(7): 3080–3083. PMCID: PMC185222
  • For papers in press (often listed as "epub ahead of print"), or within the first 3 months following publication, you can cite the paper in one of three ways:
    • If available, include the PMCID at the end of the full citation (See above example)
    • When the paper is submitted via Method A or B, indicate "PMC Journal - In Process" at the end of the full citation
      • An example of a properly cited Method A or B, ahead of press article:
        • Sala-Torra O, Gundacker HM, Stirewalt DL, Ladne PA, Pogosova-Agadjanyan EL, Slovak ML, Willman CL, Heimfeld S, Boldt DH, Radich JP. Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) expression and outcome in adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.Blood. [a publication date within 3 months of when the application, proposal or report was submitted to NIH]. PMCID: PMC Journal - In Process
    • When the paper is submitted via Method C or D, provide a valid NIH Manuscript Submission System ID (NIHMSID) at the end of the full citation.  NIHMSIDs are only valid for the first three months following the official publication date of an article.  For example, if you paper was published on September 1, 2013 the NIHMSID is only valid until December 1, 2013.  If the necessary approval and review steps are not completed, the paper will be considered non-compliant, despite the presence of a NIHMSID.
      • An example of a properly cited NIHMSID: 
        • Cerrato A, Parisi M, Santa Anna S, Missirlis F, Guru S, Agarwal S, Sturgill D, Talbot T, Spiegel A, Collins F, Chandrasekharappa S, Marx S, Oliver B. Genetic interactions betweenDrosophila melanogaster menin and Jun/Fos.Dev Biol. In press. NIHMSID: NIHMS44135
Tip: The Scholarly Communications Librarian can help you obtain the necessary identification numbers regardless of the PMC submission method. If your publisher has agreed to submit but has not yet done so, library staff can contact your publisher and/or NIHMS to get the identification number.

Managing NIH Public Access Policy Compliance with My NCBI

Use My NCBI's My Bibliography feature to monitor Public Access compliance for all applicable papers the you author or arise from you NIH award.  You can associate your papers with specific funding and create clean PDF reports for submission with grant applications, proprosals and progress reports.

To learn more about using My NCBI, visit the Library's LibGuide on Managing NIH Public Access Compliance.

How to Format an NIH Grant in your Publications

When citing your NIH grants in publication, you should include the activity code (eg.,R01), and the two-letter institute code (eg., GM) followed by the serial code, with any leading zeros included.  Separating dashes or spaces should be left out. 

A proper grant number citation in you publication would follow this format: R01GM987654

The use of consistent formatting in grant acknolwedgment helps to improve various NIH information resources such as PubMed, PubMed Central and NIH RePORTER. From NIH Staff, November 30, 2013 »

Frequently Asked Questions

The following are a collection of some of the more common questions and concerns the library has experienced.  For an expanded list of questions related to the NIH Public Access Policy, visit the NIHPA FAQ page.

This is an author-created version of the manuscript as accepted for publication, that incorporates all edits made during the peer-review process but will not have undergone any formatting by the journal/publisher.

The policy applies to any peer-reviewed journal article that was also NIH-funded. While NIH used to include language in their FAQs to exclude editorials, reviews, etc, it has been our experience that these types of publications can be peer-reviewed, in which case the Policy would apply. If there is any doubt, the library recommends that you move forward with the submission of a paper.

No, the policy only applies to peer-reviewed journal manuscripts. A journal is defined as a publication that is published in successive parts for an indefinite time frame and has an ISSN (International Standard Serial Number.)

The PubMed Central reference number (PMCID) is different from the PubMed reference number (PMID). PubMed Central is an index of full-text papers, while PubMed is an index of abstracts. The PMCID links to full-text papers in PubMed Central, while the PMID links to abstracts in PubMed. PMIDs have nothing to do with the NIH Public Access Policy.

Example of a PubMed ID and corresponding PMCID:

  • PMID:23049819 and
  • PMCID:PMC3458919

According to communications from NIHMS, it takes 6-8 weeks for a paper to move from the initial submission and PDF approval to the point of PMCID assignment. However, it has been the library's experience that this process takes longer with most papers moving through the process in 8-12 weeks. It is critical that the reviewing author closely monitor their email for notifications from NIHMS to ensure these are completed in a timely process.

Contact the library. It may be that the publisher is unaware that the paper was NIH-funded and we can notify them of this information which should trigger the submission. Many journals/publishers have specific methods for indicating NIH-funding which are not always obvious during the publication submission process.

This can depend. If a paper is submitted by a publisher under Method D, it is generally the corresponding author who is selected as the approving/reviewing author. If a paper is submitted by an author, or third party, any author or grantee on the paper can be chosen as the approving/reviewing author. The only requirement is that they have an eRA Commons account.

Contact the library. We can help you correspond with your co-authors to confirm whether they are able to complete the necessary approval/review steps. If they can't, or are unwilling, we can contact NIHMS and request that the reviewing/approving author be changed to yourself or another author/awardee.

If an author or awardee is not the reviewing/approving author but they would like to take over the approval and review responsibilities on a stalled submission, NIHMS has implemented mechanisms for this to take place. If you have a grant that has been associated with the paper in NIHMS, you can use the "Claim Manuscript" button which displays under the article summary in NIHMS. The original reviewer will have one week to reject this request, after which you can take over these responsibilities. If you are an author but do not have any grants associated in NIHMS, you can use the "Watch Manuscript" button available in NIHMS to associate yourself with the paper. Once the watch request is approved, you will have the option to "claim" the manuscript and take over reviewing and approving duties. For more information on these steps, visit the NIHMS FAQ.

It has been the experience of the library that this is not possible. NIHMS works strictly from their Manuscript Submission System queue and we have been unable to move papers ahead in this system, regardless of the urgency of the request. For this reason, it is critical that authors work with the library to ensure their papers are submitted to NIHMS at acceptance for publication, so that all necessary steps can occur in a timely fashion.

Share Your Work

Why share your work?

  • Provide access for your teaching responsibilities
  • Convenient, free access for your grant reviewers
  • Share your research with colleagues in limited access areas
  • Give your paper a permanent URL to be shared with your readers
  • The repository provides a place for papers outside the scope of the NIH mandate, whether by virtue of funding, acceptance date or document type.

What to share?

Click on the links below to see some examples of the types of things you can share

May I share?

When deciding how best to share your work, consider some of the following:

  • Does my copyright agreement allow me to share my work?
  • What kind of license governs my article?
  • What version of my paper can be posted?
  • Is there an embargo to be observed?

How to share?

Tip: Send your manuscript to the Arnold Library for it to be included in the Institutional Repository or to be submitted to PubMed Central.

Authors@FHCRC is your library-hosted Institutional Repository. We collect a variety of materials including journal articles, videos, image collections and dissertations, providing a permanent URL for your work. Contact to have your work included in the Repository, or use the webform to upload manuscript files to be included.

PubMed Central

Once posted to PubMed Central, results of NIH-funded research become more prominent, integrated and accessible, making it easier for all scientists to pursue NIH’s research priority areas competitively. PubMed Central materials are integrated with large NIH research data bases such as Genbank and PubChem, which helps accelerate scientific discovery. Clinicians, patients, educators, and students can better reap the benefits of papers arising from NIH funding by accessing them on PubMed Central at no charge. Finally, the Policy allows NIH to monitor, mine, and develop its portfolio of taxpayer funded research more effectively, and archive its results in perpetuity.

Post to your personal or lab website

In some cases, the publishing agreement you sign allows for the posting of your article on an author or lab website. For help in determining your ability to do this, contact Librarians can review the copyright agreement and determine your posting right as an author.

Publish in an open access journal

When you publish in an open access journal, your final published article is automatically made freely available. Visit our Publishing Resources to see a list of OA sources

Copyright & Reuse

Creative Commons License

Creative CommonsSome publishers have adopted Creative Commons licenses for their journals. Click on the links below to learn more about what each license entails:

Attribution Attribution: You let others copy, distribute, display, and perform your copyrighted work — and derivative works based upon it — but only if they give credit the way you request.

Share Alike Share Alike: You allow others to distribute derivative works only under a license identical to the license that governs your work.

Noncommercial Non-Commercial: You let others copy, distribute, display, and perform your work — and derivative works based upon it — but for non-commercial purposes only.

No Derivative Works No Derivative Works: You let others copy, distribute, display, and perform only verbatim copies of your work, not derivative works based upon it.

Creative Commons Generator: If you are publishing in a journal which applies Creative Commons licenses, use the Creative Commons Generator to find the appropriate license to fit your needs.

Fair Use & Reuse of Other's Published Materials

What is "Fair Use" of materials?

As specified by the US Copyright Code, in determining whether the use made of a work in any particular case is a fair use the factors to be considered shall include — 

  1. the purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for nonprofit educational purposes;
  2. the nature of the copyrighted work;
  3. the amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole; and
  4. the effect of the use upon the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work.

Understand & Protect Your Copyright

What is Copyright?

Copyright SymbolCopyright is a form of protection provided by the laws of the United States (title 17, U. S. Code) to the authors of “original works of authorship,” including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. Section 106 of the 1976 Copyright Act generally gives the owner of copyright the exclusive right to do and to authorize others to do the following:

  • To reproduce the work in copies or phonorecords;
  • To prepare derivative works based upon the work;
  • To distribute copies or phonorecords of the work to the public by sale or other transfer of ownership, or by rental, lease, or lending;
  • To perform the work publicly, in the case of literary, musical, dramatic, and choreographic works, pantomimes, and motion pictures and other audiovisual works;
  • To display the work publicly, in the case of literary, musical, dramatic, and choreographic works, pantomimes, and pictorial, graphic, or sculptural works, including the individual images of a motion picture or other audiovisual work; and
  • In the case of sound recordings,* to perform the work publicly by means of a digital audio transmission. From US Copyright Office »

Get Help with Copyright

We can help you evaluate publisher copyright agreements and make sure your needs are being met. When needed, we work with General Counsel to provide guidance to authors. 

Additionally, we have created an Amendment to Publication Agreement with General Counsel to ensure that authors retain the ability to share their work, whether depositing in PubMed Central or posting to our Institutional Repository. Refer to the following guide for more information:


Terms Related to Open Access

See also "Publication Agreement"

A DOI is an alphanumeric name that identifies digital content, such as a book or journal article. The DOI is paired with the object's electronic address, or URL, in an updateable central directory, and is published in place of the URL in order to avoid broken links while allowing the content to move as needed. DOIs are created and distributed by publishers to provide unique, permanent references to scholarly articles (or other works) as hosted on publisher's web sites/electronic journals. From »

For example:
Dalal Y, Furuyama T, Vermaak D, Henikoff S.
"Inaugural Article: Structure, dynamics, and evolution of centromeric nucleosomes". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (0027-8424), 104 (41), p. 15974.
PMID: 17893333
PMCID: PMC1993840
DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0707648104

The investigator's final manuscript of a peer-reviewed article accepted for journal publication, including all modifications from the peer-review process. This is the final version of the manuscript the author submits before the publisher creates the galley proofs.

The journal's authoritative copy of the article, including all modifications from the publishing peer-review process, copy-editing and stylistic edits, and formatting changes.

An institutional repository is an online locus for collecting, preserving, and disseminating—in digital form—the intellectual output of an institution, particularly a research institution. From Wikipedia »


The NIH Public Access Policy ensures that the public has access to the published results of NIH funded research. It requires scientists to submit journal articles that arise from NIH funds to the digital archive PubMed Central. The Policy requires that these articles be accessible to the public on PubMed Central to help advance science and improve human health. From NIH »

The policy is intended to: 1) create a stable archive of peer-reviewed research publications resulting from NIH-funded research to ensure the permanent preservation of these vital published research findings; 2) secure a searchable compendium of these peer-reviewed research publications that NIH and its awardees can use to manage more efficiently and to understand better their research portfolios, monitor scientific productivity, and ultimately, help set research priorities; and 3) make published results of NIH-funded research more readily accessible to the public, health care providers, educators, and scientists. From NOT-OD-05-022 »

Does the Policy Apply to Me?

The Policy applies to you if your peer-reviewed article is based on work in one or more of the following categories:

  • Directly funded by an NIH grant or cooperative agreement active in Fiscal Year 2008 (October 1, 2007- September 30, 2008) or beyond;
  • Directly funded by a contract signed on or after April 7, 2008...

Specifically, this policy applies to all research grant and career development award mechanisms, cooperative agreements, contracts, Institutional and Individual Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Awards, as well as NIH intramural research studies. From NOT-OD-05-022 »

The Law

The NIH Public Access Policy implements Division G, Title II, Section 218 of PL 110-161 (Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2008) which states:

SEC. 218. The Director of the National Institutes of Health shall require that all investigators funded by the NIH submit or have submitted for them to the National Library of Medicine's PubMed Central an electronic version of their final, peer-reviewed manuscripts upon acceptance for publication, to be made publicly available no later than 12 months after the official date of publication: Provided, That the NIH shall implement the public access policy in a manner consistent with copyright law.

Important Dates

  • As of April 7, 2008, all articles arising from NIH funds must be submitted to PubMed Central upon acceptance for publication.
  • As of May 25, 2008, NIH applications, proposals, and progress reports must include the PubMed Central reference number when citing an article that falls under the policy and is authored or co-authored by the investigator, or arose from the investigator's NIH award. This policy includes applications submitted to the NIH for the May 25, 2008 due date and subsequent due dates.

Learn more about the NIH Public Access Policy at:

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) developed the NIH Manuscript Submission System (NIHMS) to facilitate the submission process of final, peer-reviewed manuscripts. NIHMS allows users to deposit and manage manuscripts. Any additional files that contain figures, tables, or supplementary information should also be included with the manuscript. From NIH Public Access FAQ »

This number is generated as soon as a manuscript is submitted to PubMed Central. PMCID numbers are assigned later in the PMC intake process. When citing papers in NIH grant applications, proposals and progress reports, if a PMCID number is not yet available, use the NIHMS (NIHMS ID) instead. From NIH Public Access FAQ »

An Open Access (article) is one that meets the following two conditions:

  1. The author(s) and copyright holder(s) grant(s) to all users a free, irrevocable, worldwide, perpetual right of access to, and a license to copy, use, distribute transmit and display the work publicly and to make and distribute derivative works, in any digital medium for any responsible purpose, subject to proper attribution of authorship, as well as the right to make small numbers of printed copies for their personal use.
  2. A complete version of the work and all supplemental materials, including a copy of the permission as stated above, in a suitable standard electronic format is deposited immediately upon initial publication in at least one online repository that is supported by an academic institution, scholarly society, government agency, or other well-established organization that seeks to enable open access, unrestricted distribution, interoperability, and long-term archiving (for the biomedical sciences, PubMed Central is such a repository). From The Bethesda Statement »

Open Access Options & Alternatives

Open access to a research article can be achieved in a variety of ways depending on the arrangements authors make with journal publishers and/or a publisher's open access policies. Warning Please note that NIH funded articles, regardless of their open access status, must be deposited into PMC to meet the NIH Public Access Policy requirements. Some examples include:

  • Institutional - (e.g. or discipline-based Repositories (e.g. PubMed Central)
  • Open Access Journals (e.g. PLoS Biology) - all articles in these journals are open access immediately upon publication. Some open access publisher operate as non-profits while others are for-profit, commercial enterprises.
  • Open Access Articles after Embargo (e.g. PNAS with 6 month embargo). - Some journals choose to make articles available open access after a proscribed embargo period.
  • Paid Open Access to Articles - Some commercial publishers offer to make articles open access immediately upon publication for a fee (currently $1,000-3,000 per article) paid by the author. Typically, authors are not required to pay this fee in order to fulfill their PMC deposit requirement. If an author chooses to pursue this option, the staff in the Office of Sponsored Research can help in determining whether these fees are allowable on a specific grant.

An agreement that transfers some or all of an author's copyright or use rights to the publisher. This agreement might also be titled "Copyright Transfer Agreement," "License to Publish," "Journal Publishing Agreement," "Copyright Assignment," etc. This agreement should be read carefully by the author before signing to ensure that the author retains appropriate public access rights. Although the agreement is provided by the publisher, it may still be amended by negotiation.

Warning Please note this is NOT the PMID number. The same article may have both a PMID and a PMCID. Use the PMCID when citing articles in NIH grant applications, progress reports and proposals

For example:
Dalal Y, Furuyama T, Vermaak D, Henikoff S.
"Inaugural Article: Structure, dynamics, and evolution of centromeric nucleosomes". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (0027-8424), 104 (41), p. 15974.
PMID: 17893333
PMCID: PMC1993840
DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0707648104

This number relates to each indexed paper's citation entry in PubMed (the National Library of Medicine's portal to the MEDLINE database). Warning This number is NOT the same as the PMCID number.

For example:
Dalal Y, Furuyama T, Vermaak D, Henikoff S.
"Inaugural Article: Structure, dynamics, and evolution of centromeric nucleosomes". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (0027-8424), 104 (41), p. 15974.
PMID: 17893333
PMCID: PMC1993840
DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0707648104

PubMed is a free search engine for accessing the MEDLINE database of citations and abstracts of biomedical research articles. It is a companion to, but separate from, PubMed Central. From PubMed »

PubMed Central is an archive of full-text biomedical journal articles and manuscripts available online without a fee. Articles on PubMed Central contain links to other scientific databases (such as GenBank and PubChem). Articles collected under the NIH Public Access Policy are archived on PubMed Central. Warning PubMed Central is NOT PubMed, rather it is a separate companion resource. Many of the full text links in PubMed point across to PubMed Central. From PubMed Central FAQ »



This section is intended to provide resources that may help guide authors when confronted with questions about the acknowledgement section of journal articles

Core Facility or Resource Usage Acknowledgments

Collaborator or Supporter Acknowledgments

Funding Acknowledgments

Requirements for Acknowledging NIH-Supported Research — Communicating and Acknowledging Federal Funding: April 26, 2013. Retrieved November 8, 2017.

The NIH grants policy statement outlines requirements for acknowledging Federal funding in the following products when describing projects or programs funded in whole or in part with NIH funds:

  • research publications
  • press releases and other public statements
  • other publications or documents about research that is funded by NIH
  • requests for proposals and bid invitations
  • and other documents describing projects or programs funded in whole or in part with Federal money

must include the following statements:

  1. A specific acknowledgment of NIH grant support, such as:
    "Research reported in this [publication/press release] was supported by [name of the Institute(s), Center, or other NIH offices] of the National Institutes of Health under award number [specific NIH grant number(s) in this format: R01GM987654]."
    (If you have more than one grant, only cite the grant(s) that supported the research described in the article or presentation.)
  2. An acknowledgement of the level of NIH funding that indicates:
    a. the percentage and dollar amounts of the total program or project costs financed with Federal money and
    b. the percentage and dollar amount of the total costs financed by nongovernmental sources.
  3. A disclaimer that says:
    "The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health."

Predatory Journals, Publishers & Conferences

Questions about Predatory Publishers, Journals & Conferences?

If you need assistance researching an unfamiliar journal, publisher or conference, contact Scholarly Communications at the Arnold Library.

NIH Statement on Article Publication Resulting from NIH Funded Research


To protect the credibility of published research, authors are encouraged to publish papers arising from NIH-funded research in reputable journals.

Recommendations to Identify Credible Journals

To help protect the credibility of papers arising from its research investment, NIH encourages its stakeholders, including grantees, contractors, intramural researchers, and librarians, to help authors:

  • Adhere to the principles of research integrity and publication ethics;
  • Identify journals that follow best practices promoted by professional scholarly publishing organizations; and
  • Avoid publishing in journals that do not have a clearly stated and rigorous peer review process.

— NIH Notice Number: NOT-OD-18-011

"Is this journal indexed?"

Journals that are indexed have typically been subjected to scrutiny by professional committees or indexers using standardized criteria. Inclusion in well-known indexes like MEDLINE is a useful signal regarding a journal's legitimacy.

Investigating Predatory Journals & Publishers

The following sites are good starting points for investigating journals and publishers:

Investigating Predatory Conferences

Think Check Attend

Think - Check - Attend

Think Check Attend is an initiative that guides researchers and scholars when deciding whether to attend a conference or submit an abstract and present their research. The 3-step approach encourages academics to 'Think' about the problem posed by predatory or substandard conferences, 'Check' the conference against a set of criteria designed to highlight attributes of good and bad quality conferences, and 'Attend' only if the conference adheres to the criteria consistent with a legitimate conference. This initiative is provided by Knowledge E and has been endorsed by Think Check Submit as a sister initiative to Think Check Submit.


Publishing Community Ethics & Standards

The publishing community is engaged in various efforts to help scholars identify predatory journals and create standards and codes of ethics.